Non-banking financial companies (NBFCs) are
a vital part of the Indian financial service system. NBFC’s have multiplied in
large numbers and serving the public at large to support the financial
inclusion program with affordable credit at home. NBFCs are playing a key role
in meeting the credit demands unmet by the traditional banks, specifically
focusing on peer to peer lending. Corpseed is leading firm in India for NBFC
It is a Company registered under the Companies Act engaged in the business(es) of providing financial services including loans & advances, leasing, hire purchase etc. They provide loans and advances and other credit facilities to business people or budding entrepreneur where Bank/Financial Institution are not comfortable, or say it is an alternative source of finance to businessman. Thus, they have widened the spectrum and array of products and services offered by the financial sector. Progressively, NBFC’s are gaining increasing recognition due to their customer-oriented services; flexible products, abridged procedures; flexibility and timeliness in meeting the credit needs of the seekers of credit; etc.
NBFCs are regulated by the Reserve Bank of India (RBI) within the framework of the Chapter IIIB of the Reserve Bank of India Act, 1934 and any rules made thereunder or any directions issued by it under the Act. It is prima facie that the NBFC can be Companies registered under the Companies Act, 1956/2013 with the object clause of financial activity and the same need to take approval from Regulator Reserve Bank of India RBI) before commence the business of finance. Upon approval of RBI, Company can start the financial business and the entity should maintain the Principal Business Criteria (PBC) regularly.
FINANCIAL ACTIVITY as “Principal Business” implies that financial assets of the Company shall constitute more than 50% of the total assets of the Company and income from such financial assets shall constitute more than 50% of the gross revenue of the Company, is termed as “PBC”.
Types of Non- Banking Financial Company (NBFC) in India
1) INVESTMENT AND CREDIT COMPANY (NBFC-ICC): Company registered under Companies Act, 2013 with its principal business of loans and advances, asset finance, providing the finance for any activity other than its acquisition of own securities; also not in any other category of NBFC is called Investment and Credit Company. It is merged version of previous form like Loan Company, Investment Company and Assets Finance Company, enabling a particular entity with all three activities in one Brand, called ICC. It required Net Owned Fund of INR 2 Crore to start with this business.
2) INFRASTRUCTURE FINANCE COMPANY (NBFC-IFC): The Infrastructure Finance Company is specific NBFC Category, principally engaged in providing infrastructure loans. Such companies do business of credit facility (term loans, project loans, etc.) to its client. It required minimum of 75% of its total assets of the company should be invested in the infrastructure loans. It required Net Owned Fund of INR 300 Crore to be start with.
3) INFRASTRUCTURE DEBT FUND (IDF)-NBFC: It is extended form of IFC and IFC can only be Sponsor for this Debt Fund. IDF as company register in Companies Act, 2013 regulated by Reserve Bank of India as IDF facilitates the flow of long term debt into infrastructure projects. It can raise resources through the issue of Rupee or Dollar denominated bonds of minimum 5 years maturity.
4) MORTGAGE GUARANTEE COMPANY (MGC)-NBFC: MGC company' has a principle objective of providing mortgage guarantee. Such companies shall comply with at least 90% of the business turnover form mortgage guarantee business or at least 90% of the gross income is from mortgage guarantee business. It can be started with Net Owned Fund of INR 100 Crore.
5) NBFC-NON OPERATIVE FINANCIAL HOLDING COMPANY [NOFHC]: A NOFHC is financial business entity through which Entities/groups will be allowed to set up a new bank, which will hold the bank and all other financial services companies regulated by RBI or other financial sector regulators.
6)Non-Banking Financial Company (NBFC - MFI): Micro Finance Institution (NBFC-MFI) are the non-deposit taking financial company with Minimum Net Owned Funds of Rs.5 crore and above (for North Eastern Region of India, it will be Rs. 2 crores). It has criteria of Qualifying Assets not to be less than 85% of its total assets, to remain MFI. Qualifying assets are loan disbursed to borrowers with rural household income not exceeding 125k or urban and Semi-Urban household income not exceeding INR 200K. Loan to be extended without Collateral.
7) NBFC – FACTORS (NBFC-FACTORS): NBFC-Factors is financial institution with minimum net worth of the Company is Rs 5 Crores, having the principal business of acquisition of receivables on discount or financing against such receivables by way of loans or advances or by the creation of security interest over such receivables but excludes normal lending by a bank.
8) Core Investment Company (NBFC - CIC): CIC NBFC are engaged in the business of acquisition of securities and shares which its holds 90% of its total assets in the form of investment in shares and equity. The minimum requirement of asset size is INR 100 Crore.
9) Peer to Peer Lending (NBFC-P2P): This is new generation tech driven NBFC, which in fact does not lending on its own instead manage common platform for Lender and Borrower. Both lender an borrower are participant of platform. Participant are onboarded in platform and thereafter they can make transaction via platform. It also requires net owned fund of INR 2 Crore to being with.
10) Account Aggregator (NBFC-AA): It is NBFC based on technology. Technology to connect the financial information provider and financial information user to make financial decision more accurate and immediate. Unlike earlier to assess the information, precisely financial one do take time or validation is tough but with introduction of this concept the same has been addressed. The license platform Account Aggregator do connect User, Financial Information User and Financial Information Platform from one dedicated system and validate the financial information of user. It also required INR 2 crore as Net Owned Fund to start the business.
HOW NBFCs ARE DIFFERENT FROM A BANK?
An NBFC cannot accept demand deposits;
- NBFCs are not a part of the payment and settlement system
- NBFC cannot issue cheques drawn on itself;
- Unlike a bank, Deposit insurance facility is not available to the depositors of NBFCs.